Search on : Taxa descriptions


Page number:109 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Cymatoderma dendriticum (Pers.) Reid PI. IX. figs. 1-4; Pl. X. fig. 1.
Sporophores up to 10-5 cm from stalk to margin, and 20.5 cm in width, thin, pliable, coriaceous-membranous, dimidiate or flabellate, often deeply lobed, sometimes almost to the short lateral stipe, and the lobes when numerous becoming imbricate. Pileus usually completely covered by a very well developed felt-like tomentum, which often greatly exceeds the thickness of the flesh and may reach 8 mm near the base of the fruitbody, obscuring the knife-edged ridges on the surface of the pileus which in this species are rather short and not very prominent. In herbarium material this tomentum varies in colour from dull beige or pale fawn to quite dark ochraceous-brown, but collectors notes indicate that the upper surface of the living plant may be fawn, cinnamon-fawn, subferruginous, or dark brown, frequently with paler or faint rufescent zones, becoming rufescent brown or fuscous-brown toward the base of the sporophore and whitish towards the lacerate-spiculose margin. Hymenial surface cream coloured in well preserved young fruitbodies to purplish or reddish-brown in older specimens, but livid-grey, fawn-drab, brownish-tan, or whitish becoming pale brown or ochraceous-fawn in fresh material. The surface is thrown into a complex system of densely crowded, rather sharp, branched, radiating ribs, which are not united behind into "main branches" or "trunks". It would seem that in living fructifications the ribs may be more obtuse than in dried specimens and may in addition bear warts or spines. These usually disappear on drying but persist in some instances as in the type specimens of Beccariella trailii where the hymenial surface is covered with spines. Stipe lateral, usually short and stout or rudimentary, rarely well developed as in the type specimen in which it reaches 5 cm in length and 1-5 cm in width, covered by a dense reddish-brown tomentum. Flesh thin, greyish white to pallid wood colour. Hyphal structure trimitic; generative hyphae 3-5 :m in diam., of two kinds, those which are thin-walled appearing twisted and ribbon-like; skeletal hyphae 4-5(-8) :m in diam., tapering to narrow, often thin-walled, secondarily septate apices; binding hyphae 2-2-5 :m in diam., branched, the branches of limited growth and either of equal diameter throughout or tapering slightly towards the apices. [For further details of hyphal morphology see the generic description]. There is no cuticular zone but the hyphae toward the surface of the pileus are often more densely compacted. The surface tomentum is formed of thick-walled hyphae, (2-5-)3-5(-7) :m in diam., with thin or thick-walled, obtuse or slightly narrowed apices [see also generic description]. Hymenium thickening, reaching 90 :m. Cystidia normally absent. Gloeocystidia abundant, as long, undulating, thin-walled bodies with swollen bases up to 15 :m in diam., narrowing above to broad obtuse or subacute apices, and frequently irregularly constricted and very rarely forked. Basidia clavate, 30 x 4 :m. Spores (2.5-)3-4 x (2-)2.5-3(-3-5) :m, often mono-guttulate, very broadly elliptical to subglobose.
Habitat: on dead stumps, trunks, fallen branches, etc. It is apparently frequent on Calamus sp. in the East, but has also been reported on Alpinia aromatica (Berkeley 1856); Erythrina crista-galli (Spegazzini 1899); Ficus, Hevea brasiliensis, Plectocomia elongata, and Psidium guajava (Theodoro 1937). There is, however, one very interesting collection in the Kew Herbarium from Venezuela (Dennis 1335) with the following information "on flat stony soil, full of fragments of mica schist much permeated by the mycelium. Marked rhizomorphs present but no rotten wood or roots found beneath on digging." This is a most atypical habitat and despite the fact that no buried wood was found in the immediate vicinity it is almost certain that the fungus was connected with such a substrate, as the presence of rhizomorphs suggests.
Distribution: pantropical, but particularly frequent in South America.
Taxon name: