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 Add this item to the list   smooth: 18-20 x 9.5-12
   
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Page number:57 
Remarks (internal):Helvella solitaria can be confused with H. pocillum, H. ulvinenii, and H. verruculosa because of its cup-shaped apothecium, costate stipe with ribs extending only to the base or a short distance onto the apothecium, and pleurorhynchous asci. Helvella pocillum has larger ascospores (22-30 x 13-17 µm). Helvella ulvinenii has brown, sepia to black apothecial sterile surface (never with grayish tones), brown pigment of the apothecial hyphal fascicles visible in cotton blue and hyaline stipe hyphal fascicles. Helvella verruculosa differs in the visibility of the brown cytoplasmic pigments in the ectal excipulum and apothecial hyphal fascicles in cotton blue, and its arctic and alpine distribution contrasts with the boreal and temperate distribution for H. solitaria (Abbott & Currah 1997).
Paraphysis widths cited here match those by Karsten (1871) but not those by Abbott & Currah (1997), who cited paraphyses with 7-8 µm wide apices. Karsten (1871) gave 14-16 x 10 µm for H. solitaria ascospores but did not mention whether they were smooth or ornamented. We agree with Harmaja (1977a,b) that mature and immature ascospore sizes differ in some species, but in view of the greater size variation in H. solitaria, we consider it important to list the sizes of both immature and mature ascospores.
Although Dissing (1966b) recognized H. solitaria and H. queletii as different species, we agree with Harmaja (1977a) that they are synonyms, with the name H. solitaria having priority (see discussion under H. queletii).
According to Abbott & Currah (1997), H. solitaria sensu Dissing (1966b) corresponds to H. leucomelaena. We do not agree with this because of the following: 1) H. leucomelaena has aporhynchous asci; Dissing (1966b) did not mention the ascus base, and 2) the specimens studied by Dissing do not seem to correspond to a single species. Harmaja (1977a) designated one Dissing H. solitaria specimen as holotype of H. confusa Harmaja (also considered a synonym under H. leucomelaena by Abbott & Currah, 1997), while other Dissing specimens correspond to different species, among them H. leucomelaena and H. solitaria (Harmaja 1979). As Dissing’s concept of H. solitaria was very broad, it cannot be attributed to a particular taxon
 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Helvella solitaria P. Karst., Bidr. Känn. Finl. Nat. Folk 19: 37, 1871 Figs 9, 10a, 34
Type: Finland: Mustiala, in horto, ad marg. rivula, 21 Sep 1866, P. Karsten PAK 3288 (Holotype H).
= Helvella queletii Bres., Fungi trident. 1(3): 39, 1883
Ascospores a) smooth: 18-20 x 9.5-12 µm, broadly ellipsoidal; b) verrucose: 15-17.5 x 9.5-11.5 µm, ellipsoidal. Paraphyses 4-7 µm wide at the apex, thin-walled, light brown, pigment deposits in the cytoplasm. Medullary excipulum hyaline. Ectal excipulum brown, pigment deposits in cell walls and cytoplasm. Stipe inner layer hyaline. Stipe outer layer light brown, pigment deposits in cell walls. Apothecial hyphal fascicles 40-90 µm long, light brown, pigment deposits in cell walls; stipe hyphal fascicles 35-90 µm, light brown in mass, pigment deposits in cell walls. The brown pigments of the paraphyses are visible, and pigments of the ectal excipulum, stipe outer layer, and apothecial and stipe hyphal fascicles are not visible in cotton blue or Melzer’s. All tissues rr-.
 
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