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 Add this item to the list   802331 Original description
   
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Page number:1278 
Remarks (internal):Helvella dryophila looks similar to H. vespertina, but the contrast in color between pileus and stipe is striking; the pileus is very dark and squat and rounded with distinct well defined grooves when young (Fig. 1A-C), and the ascomata are up to 85 mm high. We could not find any reliable microscopic differences. The two species can actually grow near each other in a mixed oak-conifer forest. The collection from Oregon under the name H. lacunosa (U42681) in O’Donnell et al. (1997) is nested within the H. dryophila clade (CA2 in Fig. 2) and is almost certainly H. dryophila. Other western North American Helvella species are discussed below. 
Description type:Original description 
Description:Helvella dryophila Vellinga & N.H. Nguyen, sp. nov.Figs. 1A-C, 5
MycoBank MB802331
Type collection: United States of America, California, Alameda County, Berkeley, University of California, Observatory Hill opposite McCone Hall, 4 Apr 2012, N.H. Nguyen (UC 1999233), GenBank (KC122861).
Ascoma 35-85 mm high. Pileus 15-45 mm high, 21-55 mm diam, when young rounded with well defined grooves (Fig. 1C), ages to irregularly lobed and wrinkled, pinched in at apex, slightly ribbed in some places, dark gray-black, rarely pale gray, sometimes with some hints of brown, fused with stipe in several places; apothecial surface light gray, smooth. Stipe 35-75 x 10-20 mm, cylindrical to distinctly widened in basal part, regularly to irregularly grooved and lacunose, with anastamosing ribs, off-white when young and often gray with age, becoming yellowish ocher along the whole stipe, with white mycelium at base (Fig. 1A, B)
Ascospores [65/4/4] l x w = 15.7-19.6 x 9.8-12.7 µm, avl x avw = 16.4-17.6 x 10.8-11.7 µm, Q = 1.4-1.7, avQ = 1.5-1.55, smooth, with one big oil guttule. Asci pleurorhynchous, not amyloid, with eight ascospores. Paraphyses cylindrical, 3-5 µm wide, with slightly widened apex 4-6 µm wide, with brown contents. Ectal excipulum trichodermal; terminal elements 16-40 x 8-19 µm, narrowly clavate, not colored (Fig. 5).
Habitat and distribution: Mainly in small groups, rarely solitary, terrestrial and ectomycorrhizal with Quercus species (Q. agrifolia, Q. douglasii, Q. kelloggii, Q. wislizeni) in closed and open oak or mixed forests with oaks, also as a root tip on Arbutus menziesii in a pure Arbutus stand; host trees could be positively identified (Smith et al. 2007, Morris et al. 2008, Wolfe et al. 2009, Kennedy et al. 2012); widespread and common in the western parts of North America, currently known from southern Oregon south to southern California (Santa Cruz Island and Riverside County) in a range of approximately 1000 km, from low to mid-elevation of the Sierra Nevada (up to 1700 m). Fruiting from mid-Dec through end of May at higher elevations.
 
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