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Page number:152 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Trametres sanguinea (Fr.) Imazeki Figure 1. Plate 11 Bull. Tokyo Sci. Mus. 6 (1943) 73; Bull. Govt. For Exp. Stn Tokyo 42 (1949) 10 and 57 (1952) 120; Imazeki and Hongo, Fungi of Japan (1957) 130, ut Tr. sanguinea (Fr.) Lloyd; Joly, Bull. Soc. mycol. Fr. 84 (1968) 536.
Polyporus (Polystictus) sanguineus Fr., Boedijn, Bull. Jard. bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 16 (1940) 390; Overholts (1953) 380; Bonnet, Bull. Soc. mycol. Fr. 75 (1959) 261; Thind, Bindra and Chatrath, Res. Bull. Panjab Univ. (Botany) 129 (1957) 474; Bakshi (1971) 121; Hirayama, Rev. Appl. Myc. 10 (1931) 71.
Trametes cinnabarina var. sanguinea (Fr.) Pilát, Atlas Champ. Eur. fasc. 22-25 (1940) 319. - Tr. cinnabarina Fr., Cunn. (1965) 169. - Pycnoporus sanguineus (Fr.) Murr., Ryvarden and Johansen (1980) 527; Nobles and Frew, Can. J. Bot. 40 (1962) 1001 Madhosingh, Can. J. Bot. 40 (1962) 1073; Wright and Deschamps, Rev. Invest. Agropec. INTA Buenos Aires, ser. 5, 13 (1977) 45.
Fruit-bodies wholly cinnabar-red or vermilion, the pileus and flesh weathering or bleaching pallid white, pinkish or pallid brown and with or without reddish zones, seasonal to subperennial. Pileus -7.5 cm in radius, 10 cm wide, applanate, thin, slightly ascending, often fusing laterally into flanges, solitary, gregarious or more or less imbricate, never merismatoid, not effuso-reflexed, sometimes proliferating from the margin, substipitate with a short stem -15 x 3-10 mm (often flattened -25 mm wide) with a discoid base 5-25 mm wide, never truly sessile, matt, dull, somewhat uneven or subrugulose, at first rather distantly and slightly sulcate, narrowly and closely sulcate near the margin in large specimens, becoming rather uneven and subtuberculate at the base with superficial pads of tissue, sometimes with a continuous centrifugal pad or with several pads joining, weathering smooth, subnitid and glabrous, at first uniformly coloured then developing paler zones; margin entire, paler concolorous. Tubes -3 mm long, sometimes indistinctly layered, shortly decurrent but sharply delimited, longest at some distance from the base of the pileus, discolouring brownish to subfuscous; pores 90-160 µm wide, dissepiments 25-120 µm thick, cinnabar-red, not discolouring. Flesh 1.5-8 mm thick at the base of the pileus, gradually attenuate towards the margin, corky coriaceous, irregularly but distinctly laminate parallel to the upper surface by successive additions of felting and padding, paler concolorous fading brownish to alutaceous, generally with a narrow darker layer 0.5 mm thick over the tubes, often with reddish lines indicating the successive surfaces of the pileus.
On all kinds of softly woody plant matter from dead bamboo, pandans and palms to the sticks, branches and trunks of dead trees, often on burnt remains, generally in the open, never in deep shade of primary forest, lowland and montane -2000 m alt. in Malesian regions. Pantropical, common.
Spores 4.5-5 x 2.5-3 µm, white, smooth, ellipsoid, thin-walled, aguttate, inamyloid. Basidia 8-11 x 4-5 µm; sterigmata 4, 2 µm long. Cystidia none. Hyphal pegs -40 x 50 µm, frequent. Hyphae trimitic, clamped, thinly encrusted with orange red granular matter turning lurid yellow and dissolving in potash, not dextrinoid; skeletals 4-7(-8) µm wide in the flesh, walls -2.5 µm thick, often of unequal width, scarcely swelling in potash, aseptate, unbranched, unlimited but some with simple ends in the flesh; mediate hyphae 2-3.5 µm wide on origin, gradually widening into the skeletal, some sparingly branched to give skeletal, skeleto-binding or binding hyphae, often with a thin and narrow band -0.5 µm wide as an annular thickening of the wall; binding hyphae 1-3.5 µm wide, thick-walled, aseptate, rather freely branched, the branches of limited growth and tapering to fine subacute, simple or occasionally bifid, tips 0.5-1 µm wide, not coralloid, arising either as the whip-like ends, one to several, of short skeletals of limited growth (skeleto-binding hyphae) up to 450 µm long, simple or branched, mostly in the flesh, or from the narrower generative hyphae, and varying 300-800 µm long overall, with a rather thin-walled stalk -200 x 1.5-2 µm, a thick-walled and much branched body 50-150 x 2-3.5 (-4) µm with elongate tapering branches -450 x 1-2 µm unbranched or branched at the base at a wide angle so as to appear dichotomous, most frequent in the dissepiments, or from the mediate hyphae before or just after their transformation into skeletals, mostly in the flesh; generative hyphae 1-3 µm wide, clamped, thin-walled, much branched; dissepiments with skeletals 3-4 µm wide, walls -1.7 µm thick. Surface of pileus anoderm with shortly excrescent ends of all three kinds of hyphae, interwoven, becoming beaten flat by rain, without a crust.
Key to varieties of Tr. sanguinea in the Malay Peninsula
1. Pores 90-160, µm wide; dissepiments 25-120 µm thick. Tubes -3 mm long. Flesh 1.5-8 mm thick. . var. sanguinea
1. Pores wider. Tubes longer.
2. Pores 200-400 µm wide; dissepiments 80-200 µm. Tubes -12 mm long, often in 2-3 layers. Flesh 4-8 mm thick. var. intermedia
2. Pores 500-900 µm wide, hexagonal; dissepiments 200-400 µm thick. Tubes -20 mm long in one layer. Flesh 7-14 mm thick. var. major

Trametres sanguinea var. sanguinea
The above description is drawn from living specimens of the Malay Peninsula. It agrees with those given by the authors whom I have cited, but there are some differences in spore-size. For Indian specimens, Thind et al. give 2.6-4 x 1.4-2 µm and Bakshi gives 3.5-4.4 x 1.8-2.6 µm. For Japanese specimens, Imazeki and Hongo give 7-8 x 2.5-3 µm, which is more like that given for Tr. cinnabarina by Bakshi, Domanski, Overholts and Ryvarden. The flesh is thicker than what is usually given (3 mm) and the tubes longer, but the smaller measures may refer to dried material.
The soft and subvelutinate surface of the pileus is caused by the gradual excrescence of the interweaving hyphal ends. The layering of the flesh seems to be caused by the arrest of this outgrowth in short dry spells of weather, which may be only a matter of a few days, and insufficient to cause layering of the tubes. The red colour of the fruit-body is caused by the granular incrustation of all the hyphae. It is insoluble in water so that the fruit-bodies do not become bleached by rain, but it dissolves readily in dilute potash to give a lurid yellow solution. It is best developed on the growing ends of the hyphae on the pileus and at the pore-edges. It disappears for some reason from the internal tissue which becomes pallid brownish. White fruit-bodies are occasionally found but they have not been examined to ascertain whether the incrustation is absent or colourless or bleached by sunlight.
I failed to raise fruit-bodies in the fungarium which I employed in the Singapore Botanical Garden, probably because it was too cool and shady for their development. Detached fruit-bodies, air-dried for 4-5 days and them moistened, began to spore in less than 24 hours; they continued sporing, when kept moist, for 6-7 days.
The varied origin of the binding hyphae, which I have checked from many collections, foreshadows the specialisation of other species with strictly trimitic construction. A series of physiological researches on this fungus was made by Hirayama who found that the optimum temperature for mycelial growth was about 40°C and that light promoted the formation of the red pigment.
The nearest ally of Tr. sanguinea that I have met is the rare Tr. rubrigrisea of Singapore.
 
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