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Page number:334 
Remarks (internal):The new species is characterized by the evanescent primary squamules, short, corticate, scyphose and squamulose podetia, at first simple then branching fastigiately, by the brownish ascomata, and the psoromic acid production.
According to the infrageneric classification suggested by Stenroos et al. (2002), Cladonia dunensis probably belongs in supergroup Cladonia based on its squamulose primary thallus, sparsely branched corticate podetia, unperforated axils, and brownish ascomata.
Cladonia dunensis resembles C. celata A.W. Archer in similar podetia (Archer 1984, 1992). However, C. dunensis has squamulose podetia with schizidia and contains psoromic acid, while C. celata has podetia without schizidia and squamules and produces fumarprotocetraric acid. These two species also exhibit disjunct geographic distributions, with C. celata occurring at 450-1100 m in Australia (Archer 1984), whereas C. dunensis is known only from the type locality at sea level in dune environments in southern Brazil.
Cladonia fruticulosa Kremp. differs morphologically in having a persistent primary thallus up to 5(-10) mm long and 2(-3) mm wide with crenate-incised to deeply divided squamules, moderately branching podetia with variably smooth or roughly corticate to partly or almost totally sorediate surfaces, and is found at 440-3800 m (Swinscow & Krog 1988; Stenroos 1988). The specimens of Cladonia ochracea found in the studied area are quite similar to C. dunensis, but C. ochracea has scyphose to capitate podetia, produces fumarprotocetraric acid and grows up to 3.5 cm tall.
Psoromic acid is very rare in Cladonia species from Brazil. Gumboski & Eliasaro (2012a,b) recorded 23 species from restinga vegetation and rocky shores from southern Brazil, and none of them produced this compound. Ahti (2000) recorded 180 species from Brazil and psoromic acid was detected in only some specimens of C. acuminata (Ach.) Norrl., C. cartilaginea Müll. Arg., and C. dactylota Tuck. Both C. acuminata and C. cartilaginea have ascyphose podetia that have a granulose-sorediate surface in C. acuminata (Ahti 2000) and are decorticate in C. cartilaginea (Herb. ICN, M. Fleig 3416, 6041). In Cladonia dactylota the primary thallus is persistent, sometimes sorediate, and the podetia, although scyphose, have sorediate surface with tuberculose soralia below the scyphi or on podetial stalks (Ahti 2000; Herb. ICN, M. Fleig 5191, 5969).
Description type:Original description 
Description:Cladonia dunensis Gumboski, Beilke & Eliasaro, sp. nov. Fig. 2
MycoBank MB 804907
Differs from Cladonia celata by its squamulose podetia and by its production of psoromic acid.
Type: Brazil. Santa Catarina State: Municipality of Imbituba, 28°17ʹ57ʺS 48°42ʹ14ʺW, sea level, on acid soil in depressions between dunes, 19 Feb 2010, E. Gumboski & F. Beilke 1750 (Holotype, UPCB; isotypes, ICN, JOI).
Primary thallus evanescent, lobate squamules, 1.0-3.0 mm long, 0.5-1.2 mm wide, planes, not divided, smooth margins, without rhizines, esorediate; upper surface greenish to whitish, corticate, smooth, not pruinose, without pycnidia, lower surface white, ecorticate, smoothly arachnoid; cortex 40-70 µm, medulla 110-420 µm. Podetia 0.8-2.0 cm tall, 0.4-0.9 mm thick, greenish to brownish, scyphose, irregularly branching, at first simple then finally fastigiate mainly dichotomously, but with irregular branches common on podetial sides; scyphi sometimes deformed at margin, ≤1.2 mm wide; surface corticate and verrucose, sometimes cracked (some cracks can reveal the white medulla below), without soredia or granules, schizidia and squamules present, lobate squamules ≤0.5 mm long; cortex 20-50(-80) µm, medulla 50-120 µm, hyaline stereome, 130- 190 µm, papillate central canal, 270-500 µm wide. Hymenial disks common, globose, apical on podetia, pale brown to brownish, immature, ascospores not seen. Pycnidia rare, brow to blackish, to 0.2 mm wide, slime and conidia not seen.
Chemistry: Thallus K-, C-, KC-, UV-. Psoromic acid [major] and 2’-Odemethylpsoromic acid [minor] detected by TLC.
Ecology and distribution: The new species is known only on sandy soil in depressions between dunes, where it usually grows intermixed with other Cladonia species, such as C. ramulosa, C. didyma, and C. merochlorophaea. This area, characterized by acidity and high humidity, develops an herbaceous vegetation that is often used for cattle grazing and is periodically burned, as observed in November 2011; thus the species is endangered.
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