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 Add this item to the list  807330 Original description
   
Remarks (public):Lyophyllum turcicum is an interesting tricholomatoid species with fleshy but fragile basidiomes. According to the ITS sequence analysis this species is close to Hypsizygus marmoreus, H. ulmarius, and a collection named Lyophyllum fumosum (Table). Lyophyllum turcicum differs from these relatives in being 5.5–7 × 3.5–4.5 μm, ellipsoid, and with narrow spores. In contrast to L. turcicum, the basidiomes of Hypsizygus ulmarius and H. marmoreus grow directly on the wood of hardwood trees and their spores are globose to subglobose (Kalamees, 2004). L. fumosum is readily distinguished by the dark brown tinges of the pileus and the globose to subglobose spores (Consiglio and Contu, 2002). In Lyophyllum sect. Difformia, characterized by caespitose-growing and not blackening taxa, two species with ellipsoid spores have been described, L. brunneum and L. pseudoloricatum (Dähncke et al., 2010). Both are known only from the Canary Islands. Lyophyllum brunneum differs from L. turcicum by its stouter size, darker tinges in the pileus, nodulose marginal cells, and less elongate spores [“6–7(–7.5) × 4.5–5(–5.5) μm” in the type-collection]. L. pseudoloricatum differs by its atypical elastic-cartilaginous context, darker tinges in the pileus, lack of marginal cells, larger basidia, and wider basidiospores [“6–8(–8.1) × 4.5–6 μm” in the type-collection]. Sect. Difformia, as traditionally delimited, is polyphyletic (Figure 2). The species of the L. decastes complex (L. decastes, L. loricatum, L. fumosum, etc.) are not closely related to L. turcicum. 
Description type:Original description 
Description:Pileus 2–6 cm wide, fleshy, fragile, variable in shape according to growth conditions, broadly convex when young, later more flat with depressed or umbilicate center, without umbo, sometimes seems saddle-shaped, pileus margin enrolled when young and curved outward in the course of time. Sometimes margin wavy, pileus context watery soaked in wet weather conditions, ±pale brown, beige-brown to wood color (Pale Ochraceous-Salmon, Light Ochraceous Salmon, Plate XV; Buff-Pink, Plate XXVIII; Light Pinkish Cinnamon-Cinnamon, Plate XXIX; Avellaneous, Plate XL), typically smooth, glabrous and shiny, cuticle easily separable. Lamellae medium spaced, adnate to slightly decurrent, white or creamy to grayish,moderately thin, easily removable from the context when fresh, edges smooth. Stipe 2–5.5 cm long and 0.5–1.5 cm wide, cylindrical to clavate, typically pruinose, especially at the base, fibrillose, sometimes tapered towards the base, often twisted, sometimes thickened towards the base or generally enlarged with the base because of large debris,sometimes slightly longitudinally grooved, whitish to pale gray or dingy white, turning slightly beige to pale gray to brownish on handling, remnants of mycelium typically present at the base. Context white, up to 5 mm thick at the pileus center, considerably thinner towards its margin. Odor and taste not distinctive. Spores (5–)5.5–7(–7.8) × (3.1–)3.5–4.5(–4.8) μm (n = 350 and Q = 1.3–1.8), on average 6 × 4 μm, ellipsoid, hyaline, smooth, always with oil drops, cyanophilous, nonamyloid in Melzer’s reagent. Spore deposit white to cream. Basidia 25–35 × 5.5–6.5(–8) μm (n = 20), (1–)2–4 spored, some with basal clamp connections, clavate, some with siderophilous granules. Subhymenium made up of moderately thin-walled hyphae, 4–20 μm across. Occasional hyphal ends exserted and somewhat flexuous or forked. Hymenophoral trama regular, consisting of thin and hyaline hyphae, some with clamp connections. Marginal cells not very conspicuous, thin-walled, hyaline, uni- to pluriseptate, 15–40 × 2.7–5 μm, filiformfusiform to cylindro-flexuose (n = 20). Pileipellis a cutis made up of parallel to slightly interwoven cylindrical hyphae, 4–10(–16) μm across, mostly with intraparietal pigment, some with clamp connections, the outer hyphae is gelatinized. Stipitipellis a cutis of elongate hyphae. Clamp connections present at some septa. Thromboplerous hyphae not seen. 
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