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 Add this item to the list   Trichaptum biforme (Fr.) Ryvarden
   
Literature:
 
Page number:209 
Remarks (public):This is a rather common, variable yet easily recognised, species in the eastern tropics where it has been known as Polystictus elongatus. My description is based on the eastern specimens. They seem not to have tubes as long as recorded for tempeate specimens (-4 mm long) or spores as long. The hyphal construction of the flesh is imperfectly dimitic or trimitic. Many specimens have no trace of binding hyphae (even old fruit-bodies) whereas in others, e.g. Sing. F.N. 8756 and those of var. microsporum, they may be abundant.
The two collections which I made in the Solomon Islands, referred to var. biforme, were distinguished by the minute entire pores 80-100 µm wide, the fairly abundant binding hyphae, and the more thickly villous base of the pileus, the villous layer being -2.5 mm thick. They had small spores 4-5 x 2.5-3 µm.
A character used to distinguish T. biforme from T. abietinum is that the first grows on dicotyledonous wood, the second on coniferous; yet, T. biforme grows on the wood of Agathis in Borneo.
The lilaceous periphery of the pileus is usually present in the full growth of the fruit-body, but it seems to be lacking completely in some collections which may be recognisable as a variety.
The three new varieties which I describe show the progressive decrease in size of the spores. The small fruit-bodies of var. fuscatum and var. pusillum were fully grown, not merely immature; possibly they make a distinct species, but more collections are needed for proof.
I have, also, several collections of this species from Brazil. They make the distinction from T. abietinum almost trivial. They agree in general with var. biforme and had spores 5-7 x 2.5-3 µm. However, the pileus was more extensively villous, the tubes and pores were vinaceous drab to fuscous violaceous, the pores 120-250 µm wide, and there was a distinct smell of aniseed in one collection (Rio de Janeiro 1l Dec. 1948). The skeletal hyphae of the flesh were mostly as intercalary cells -1200 µm long (? more) and consecutive, but in one collection (Manaus Oct. 1948) they were unlimited hyphae (d3) and this collection was distinctly trimitic. The collection from Rio de Janeiro (1 1
Dec. 1948) had cystidia 3-13 µm wide. Another, OKF 00361 from Itatiaya, had spores 4-4.5 x 2.5-3.3 µm but it lacked field-notes.

Key to Malesian varieties of T. biforme
1. Pileus over 15 mm in radius, usually stramineous with purplish or lilac margin. Pores white to pale cream.
2. Spores 4-5.2 x 2-3 µm. var. biforme
2. Spores 3.5-4.5 µm x 2-2.5 µm. var. microsporum
1. Pileus -15 mm in radius, more or less fuscous. Spores short.
3. Pileus pale fuscous drab (? not purplish at the margin). Pores fuscous greyish tinged brown or subvinaceous. Spores 3-4 x 2-2.5 µm. var. fuscatum
3. Pileus fuscous brownish with purplish margin. Pores purplish fuliginous. Spores 3-4 x 1.5-2 µm. var. pusillum
 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Trichaptum biforme (Fr.) Ryvarden
Norw. J. Bot. 19 (1972) 237; Ryvarden and Johansen, Prel. Polyp. Fl. E. Africa (1980) 593.
Polyporus biformis Fr. (1833); P. friesii K1. (1833); P. pergamenus Fr. (1838); P. elongatus Berk. (1842); P. xalapensis Berk. et Curt. (1849); P. laceratus Berk. (1839).
Coriolus biformis (Fr.) Ames (1913); Trametes biformis (Fr.) Pilát (1939); Microporellus friesii (KI.) Ryv. (1972); Hirschioporus friesii (KI.) Reid (1975).
Pileus -6 cm in radius, spathulate to flabelliform, sometimes divided into cuneate segments, slightly ascending, thin, flat, rather rigid, often densely imbricate, sessile, to substipitate, inoderm and nearly smooth distally, scabrous villous towards the base, pallid straw yellow to pallid fawn ochraceous, often tinged flesh colour, with faint or brownish zones, usually purplish lilaceous towards the growing margin and often pinkish zoned, drying incurved; margin thin, subacute, becoming deeply lobed and incised; arising from a thin whitish or cream-coloured mycelial pad, often as a discoid base to isolated substipitate pilei, sometimes spreading as a thin felt up to 30 cm long and developing numerous pilei. Tubes -1.5(-2) mm long, whitish to yellowish; pores 70-120 µm wide, dissepiments 40-100 µm thick, becoming 100-200 µm wide with toothed to subirpicoid dissepiments, often 2-3 confluent, even subgyrose, but persistently entire in some collections, white to pale cream, drying pale ochraceous. Flesh 0.52 mm thick at the base of the pileus, thin, fibrous, subcoriaceous, white, no crust. Smell often rather strong as in Ganoderma.
On dead fallen stick, branches and trunks in lowland and montane forest. Cosmopolitan, tropical and temperate; Malaya to the Solomon Islands, rather common.
Spores 4-5 x 2-2.5 µm or 4.5-5.2 x 2.5-3 µm, white in the mass, smooth, ellipsoid, aguttate, not dextrinoid; 5-6.5 x 2-2.5 µm (Ryvarden), 4-6 x 1.5-2 µm (Cunningham), 6-8 x 2-2.5 µm (Overholts). Basidia 15-22 x 4-6 µm, 4-spored. Cystidia 10-32 x 3-6 µm, subcylindric, subclavate or subventricose, walls firm to slightly thickened and colourless, the obtuse apex with a cap of minute crystals partly soluble in potash, shortly projecting, hymenial and as cystidiiform ends of skeletal hyphae. Gloeocystidia and hyphal pegs non. Hyphae more or less dimitic (dl to d3) or subtrimitic in the flesh, not encrusted, not agglutinated, not dextrinoid, the tissue easily teased apart, in the flesh often somewhat microfibrillar; generative hyphae 1.5-4 µm wide, clamped, walls thin or -1 µm thick, cells -200 µm long, in places rather intricately branched and appearing as binding hyphae (but with clamps); skeletal hyphae 4-6 µm wide, -8 µm in potash, the lumen becoming more or less obliterated, aseptate, unbranched and apparently unlimited, or as intercalary cells -800 µm long with 1(-2) subterminal branches, mediate hyphae 2.5-3.5 µm wide; binding hyphae (when present) 2-4 µm wide, often laxly branched; dissepiments fully dimitic (d3) with longitudinal, easily separable, skeletal hyphae 2.5-4 µm wide (3-6 µm in potash), not agglutinated, without gloeocystidial ends. Surface of pileus in the distal part with more or less appressed skeletal hypha ends, some projecting -50(-100) µm; in the proximal part with a villous layer 300-500 µm thick, composed of generative and skeletal hyphae (sometimes fasciculate).
 
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