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 Add this item to the list  809111 Original description
Page number:52 
Remarks (internal):The previous reports of Fistulina hepatica in China (Dai 2012, Dai et al. 2011, Wang et al. 2011, Yuan & Dai 2008) were from identifications based only on morphological characters. According to the current phylogenetic analysis and more careful morphological examinations, these Chinese samples are newly described as F. subhepatica. Macroscopically, F. hepatica is quite similar to F. subhepatica in its pinkish brown to more reddish or purplish brown pileal surface, white pore surface when fresh, and individual pores; microscopically, however, F. hepatica differs from F. subhepatica by having smaller basidiospores, simple septate and thin-walled trama generative hyphae (Gilbertson & Ryvarden 1986, Nunez & Ryvarden 2001, Ryvarden & Gilbertson 1993). Moreover, F. hepatica forms a distinct lineage separate from F. subhepatica (Fig. 1). In addition, F. hepatica is widely distributed in temperate Europe and grows mainly on Quercus and Castanea, whereas F. subhepatica is found in subtropical China, occurring mostly on Castanopsis and Lithocarpus. We did not find F. hepatica on Quercus in northern China, although the big and old oak trees are suitable for the fungus.
Fistulina antarctica Speg., closely related to F. subhepatica in the phylogenetic
analysis, differs morphologically from F. subhepatica by its longer basidiospores
(5-7 × 3-4 µm, Spegazzini 1887).
Fistulina pallida Berk. & Ravenel resembles F. subhepatica in its brownish pore surface and individual pores; however, it produces smaller basidiomata and wood-brown pileus surface (Gilbertson & Ryvarden 1986). Phylogenetically, F. pallida falls outside the “core Fistulina clade” and groups with Porodisculus pendulus (Fr.) Murrill.
Description type:Original description 
Description:Fistulina subhepatica B.K. Cui & J. Song, sp. nov. Figs. 2-3
MycoBank MB 809111
Differs from Fistulina hepatica by its thin- to slightly thick-walled tramal generative hyphae with clamp connections and larger basidiospores.
Type: China, Yunnan Province, Jingdong County, Ailaoshan Nature Reserve, on dead tree of Lithocarpus (Fagaceae), 12.VII.2013, Dai 13244 (holotype, BJFC 014732; GenBank KJ925056, KJ925061).
Fruitbody - Basidiomata annual, pileate, fleshy, and readily exuding a reddish blood-like sap when squeezed or bruised when fresh, leathery when dry. Pileus sessile to laterally substipitate, dimidiate to reniform or subcircular, projecting up to 25 cm, 30 cm wide, and 6 cm thick at base. Pileal surface rose to reddish brown when fresh, becoming fuscous to black upon drying, faintly radially furrowed when fresh; margin acute, concolorous. Pore surface white when fresh, turning darker when bruised and becoming cinnamon-buff to reddish brown when dry; pores 6-9 per mm, consisting of individual, crowed but easily separable tubes.
Context clay-buff to black, leathery when dry, up to 5 cm thick. Tubes concolorous with pore surface, leathery, up to 1 cm long.
Hyphal structure - Hyphal system monomitic; generative hyphae with clamp connections, IKI-, CB-, more or less dissolving in KOH. Context - Generative hyphae hyaline, thin-walled, rarely branched, interwoven, 5-12 µm in diam, but with inflated portions up to 18 um, gloeoplerous hyphae present.
Tubes - Generative hyphae hyaline, thin- to slightly thick-walled, rarely branched, parallel along the tubes and densely in sections from dried specimens, 3.5-8 µm in diam. Basidia clavate with four sterigmata and a basal clamp connection, 15-32 × 5-7 µm; basidioles in shape similar to basidia, but slightly smaller. Cystidial elements present in the dissepimental edges, hyaline, thin-walled, 75-90 × 5-7 µm.
Spores - Basidiospores ellipsoid, hyaline, thick-walled, smooth, IKI-, CB+, 4-6 × 3-4(-4.5) µm, L = 4.82 µm, W = 3.37 µm, Q = 1.36-1.52 (n = 150/5).

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