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Page number:180 
Remarks (internal):Australohydnum dregeanum was collected on fallen trunk of E. sideroxylon in the clearings of a Mediteranean maquis. The vegetation is also characterized by scattered plants and shrubs of Quercus ilex L., Ulmus minor Mill., and Pistacia lentiscus L. mixed with conifers, Cedrus atlantica (Endl.) Manetti ex Carriere, C. deodara (Roxb. ex D. Don) G. Don, and Cupressus sempervirens L. Eucalyptus sideroxylon was introduced in reforestations approximately 60 years ago, when the local Department of Forestry began an intense planting of exotic species on the Sicilian territory. Eucalyptus wood is a new substrate, and the Mediterranean maquis is a new habitat for A. dregeanum in Europe. Melo & Hjortstam (2002) reported A. dreageanum on fallen branches of Olea europaea L. var. europaea in a holm oak forest (Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) with a small abandoned olive grove and lusitanic oaks (Q. faginea Lam.).
Owing to the presence of abundant encrusted skeletocystidia and simple septate generative hyphae, A. dregeanum is rather easily identified. The morphological features of the A. dregeanum collected in Sicily are similar to those reported by Melo & Hjortstam (2002) for specimens collected in Portugal. The main difference in the features of the Sicilian specimens are the bluish tint in the centre of hymenophoral surface (not reported in any previous description) and the non-cystidiform aspect of the marginal hyphae. The bluish tint in the centre of hymenophoral surface is clearly visible in the fresh specimens. The genus Australohydnum in Europe includes only one taxon, A. dregeanum, which was collected in Portugal by Melo & Hjortstam (2002) as new to Europe. The species is also known from Australia (Reichardt 1866, as Hydnum griseofuscescens; Reid 1956, as Irpex vellereus), New Zealand (Buchanan & Ryvarden 2000), Japan (Lloyd 1917, as Irpex purpureus), South Korea (Lim et al. 2005), Sri Lanka (Berkeley & Broome 1873, as Corticium dregeanum), India (De 1998, as Oxyporus vellereus; Tiwari et al. 2010], South Africa (Berkeley 1846, as Corticium dregeanum; Talbot 1951, as Lopharia dregeana), Israel (Tura et al. 2010), and Russia (Zmitrovich et al. 2006).
Lim & Jungh (2003) described a new species, Irpex hydnoides Y.W. Lim & H.S. Jung, microscopically quite similar to A. dregeanum but which has a different hymenophoral configuration. They analyses did not place Irpex vellereus within the I. hydnoides-I. lacteus clade but grouped it instead (with 100% support) with a sequence of A. dregeanum, supporting the synonymy of A. dregeanum and I. vellereus. Their A. dregeanum-I. vellereus clade was sister to the group that included members of the genus Phanerochaete. The presence of A. dregeanum in Italy is noteworthy, considering its fragmented European distribution. This new finding also supports Sicily as a “hot spot” of biodiversity for aphyllophoroid fungi (Saitta et al. 2011).

Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Australohydnum dregeanum (Berk.) Hjortstam & Ryvarden, Syn. Fung. 4: 61. 1990. Pl. 1
≡ Corticium dregeanum Berk., London J. Bot. 5: 3. 1846.
≡ Lopharia dregeana (Berk.) P.H.B. Talbot, Bothalia 6: 57. 1951.
= Hydnum griseofuscescens Reichardt, Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 16: 374. 1866.
≡ Austrohydnum griseofuscecens (Reichardt) Julich, Persoonia 10: 138. 1978.
= Irpex vellereus Berk. & Broome, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 14: 61. 1873.
≡ Oxyporus vellereus (Berk. & Broome) A. Roy & A.B.
De, J. Mycopathol. Res. 36: 41. 1998.
= Irpex purpureus Yasuda ex Lloyd, Mycological Notes 50: 715. 1917.
Basidiomata annual, resupinate to effuse-reflexed, forming patches up to 5 cm wide, and laterally confluent and effused ≤15 cm, cracked when dried. The hymenial surface is bluish in the center when fresh, gradually lilac to the margin; brownish when dried, with some areas soft lilac; more or less warted, warts ≤2.5 mm long, differently anastomosed. Margin evident, sterile, distinctly white, slightly tomentose ≤4 mm broad. The basidiomata can be easily separated from the substrate only when dried. Flesh thin, white.
Hyphal system pseudodimitic. Hyphae simple septate. Hymenial hyphae prevalently thin-walled. Subicular hyphae thick-walled, 4-5.5 µm wide. Marginal hyphae 4-5 µm wide, hyaline, more or less thick-walled, frequently branched, sometimes encrusted at the apex. Basidia hyaline, (22-)25-35(-40) µm long, sinuous-clavate, simple septate at the base, with sterigmata 3.5-4.5 µm long. Spores (4.5-)4.8-5.3(-5.8) x 2.5-2.8(-3.2) µm, ellipsoid, hyaline, smooth, thin-walled, inamyloid, cyanophilous. Skeletocystidia very abundant, cylindrical ≤125 µm long and 4.5-6.5(-7) wide, apices obtuse, more or less encrusted, originating from pseudoskeletal hyphae and rarely projecting beyond the hymenium ≤15 µm, incrusted part 25-45 µm.

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