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Remarks (internal):Tode described Sphaeria gelatinosa based on material collected in Mecklenburg, now a suburb of Berlin. Tode’s herbarium has been lost, along with the original specimen of Sphaeria gelatinosa (the only thing left of the holomorph are the illustrations in Tode (1791)). The only specimen of Sphaeria gelatinosa in the Herbarium of the Botany Section of the Museum of Evolution at Uppsala University (UPS), where most of Fries collections are deposited, was examined and it does not have green ascospores; it rather resembles H. cf. sulphurea. The original protologue of S. gelatinosa describes the stroma as being yellowish and gelatinous. The illustration of this species (Tode 1791: Tab. XVI: 124 a-f) shows pulvinate stromata, broadly attached to the substratum, tuberculate, and perithecia with dark contents. Webster (1964) described the teleomorph and anamorph of H. gelatinosa based on specimens from U.K. He mentions that this species is at first yellow and later becomes orange-coloured, “...watery, shining, hemispherical or almost spherical, 0.4-1.6 mm diam, containing 1-ca. 50 perithecia whose green ascospore contents are clearly visible through the translucent stroma wall, causing a bulging of the surface of the stroma.” Therefore, a specimen from Austria was chosen as the epitype of H. gelatinosa, even though the original description of the species is not very detailed. Bissett (1991b) also published a detailed description of the anamorph of H. gelatinosa, which matches Webster’s description. Some authors such as Saccardo, Penzig, and Hennings regarded H. gelatinosa as having hyaline ascospores. However, most authors (e.g. Theissen, Seaver, Webster, Bissett) have identified specimens with green ascospores as H. gelatinosa. The specimens and cultures used in the present study match Webster’s and Bissett’s descriptions, and the protologue.
Although we did not examine the type of H. moriformis, described from U.K, Petch (1938) examined it and synonymized it with H. gelatinosa. The only specimen of H. cupularis found in Fries’ herbarium (UPS) was collected and identified by him. It agrees with the protologue of the species and is indistinguishable from H. gelatinosa. Therefore we consider the two taxa as synonyms. In addition we neotypify H. cupularis with this specimen from Sweden.
Hypocrea gelatinosa is similar to H. ceracea in the small waxy, brownish stromata and gliocladium-like anamorph. The stroma of H. ceracea is larger than that of H. gelatinosa and not as tuberculate. In addition, the anamorph of H. gelatinosa forms distinct gliocladium- like conidiophores in fascicles, whereas conidiophores of H. ceracea are more irregular, gliocladium- to pachybasium-like, and do not form fascicles. Hypocrea ceracea has been found only in U.S.A. and H. gelatinosa in Europe.
 
Description type:Original description 
Description:Hypocrea gelatinosa (Tode:Fr) Fr., Summa Veg. Scand. p. 383 (1849). Figs. 207-218, 482, 515.
Anamorph. Trichoderma gelatinosum Chaverri & Samuels, sp. nov. Figs. 212-218, 515.
≡ Sphaeria gelatinosa Tode, Fungi Mecklenb. 2: 48 (1791).
≡ Sphaeria gelatinosa Tode:Fr., Syst. Mycol. II: 336 (1823).
≡ Creopus gelatinosum (Tode:Fr) Link, Handb. Erkenn. Gew. 3: 349 (1833).
≡ Chromocrea gelatinosa (Tode:Fr.) Seaver, Mycologia 2: 58 (1910).
= Hypocrea cupularis (Fr.) Sacc., Syll. Fung. 2: 535 (1883).
≡ Sphaeria cupularis Fr. [non Pat. In Duss. 1904], Linnaea, p. 539 (1830.
≡ Chromocrea cupularis (Fr.) Petch, Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 21: 293 (1938).
= ?Hypocrea moriformis Cooke & Massee, Grevillea 12: 3 (1888); fide Petch (1938).
Stromata solitary, aggregated or confluent, pulvinate, circular to irregular in outline, (0.2-)0.5-0.7(-1.0) mm diam (n = 30), (0.4-)0.5-0.6(-0.7) mm high (n = 20), broadly attached, tuberculate, surface smooth or slightly roughened, golden-yellow when young brownish orange when mature, waxy, somewhat, transparent, KOH-, ostiolar openings not obvious. Outermost stroma layer composed of angular cells, brownish, slightly thick-walled, (7.5-)14.0-17.0(-25.5) µm diam (n = 60). Tissue between the perithecia and below the outer layer of textura angularis, hyaline, cells thin-walled, (7.3-)11.5-13.7(-20.2) µm diam (n = 50). Internal tissue below the perithecia of textura angularis, hyaline, cells thin-walled, (11.5-)17.2-19.0(-29.0) µm diam (n = 60). Perithecia completely immersed in the stroma, generally closely aggregated or with some space in between, subglobose, (220-)239-303(-305) × (152-)160-229(-256) µm (n = 15); wall composed of compacted hyaline cells, KOH-, ostiolar canal (68-)78- 109(-121) µm long (n = 15). Asci cylindrical, (82-)93- 99(-126) × (3.3-)4.5-5.0(-6.0) µm (n = 60). Part- ascospores green, warted, dimorphic; distal part generally subglobose to wedge-shaped, (3.5-)4.3-4.5( -5.5) × (3.0-)4.0-4.2(-5.0) µm, proximal part generally wedgeshaped, sometimes nearly cylindrical, (3.7-)4.8-5.2(- 6.5) x (2.5-)3.5-3.7(-4.7) µm (n = 60).
Colonies on CMD at 20 ºC after ca. 2 weeks flat, with scant aerial mycelium; conidia forming sparsely or on irregular fascicles, conidia held in drops of clear, green liquid; no distinctive odour; agar not pigmented. Conidiophores gliocladium-like, erect, with relatively long branches arising at regular intervals at narrow angles, in groups of (1-)2(-3), each branch producing verticils of 1-2(-3) cylindrical metulae, phialides in appressed whorls of 2-4. Phialides generally lageniform, sometimes ampulliform, (7.5-)10.5-11.5(-16.0) µm long, (2.5-)3.3-3.5(-4.3) µm wide at the widest point, (1.5-)2.0-2.2(-3.0) µm at the base, L/W (2.0-) 3.1-3.5(-5.0) (n = 60). Conidia green, smooth, subglobose to broadly ellipsoidal, (3.3-)4.0-4.3(-5.5) x (3.0-) 3.3-3.5(-4.3) µm, L/W (1.0-)1.2-1.3(-1.7) (n = 60). No chlamydospores observed.
Colonies on PDA at 25 ºC after ca. 2 weeks flat, cottony; conidiation effuse; agar not pigmented; no distinctive odour. Colony radius after 3 d on PDA at 15 ºC 7-18 mm, 20 ºC 21-30 mm, 25 ºC 28-38 mm, 30 ºC 26-32 mm, and 35 ºC 0 mm (n = 3). Colony radius after 3 d on SNA at 15 ºC 7-11 mm, 20 ºC 14-19 mm, 25 ºC 18-24 mm, 30 ºC 18-22 mm, and 35 ºC 0 mm (n = 3).
Habitat. Decaying decorticated wood and bark.
Known distribution. Europe (Austria, France, Germany, U.K.).
Descriptions and illustrations. Webster 1964: Figs. 1, 2; Bissett 1991b: Figs. 38-47.
Specimens examined. Austria, Niederoesterreich, Mauerbach, on decorticated wood of Carpinus betulus, 17 Oct. 1998, W. Jaklitsch (BPI 747556, epitype of teleomorph designated herewith, ex-type culture T. gelatinosum, G.J.S. 98-184 = CBS 114246 = DAOM 232835, dry culture BPI 843662). France, Landes, St. Vincent de Paul, on decorticated wood of Quercus robur, 26 Jun. 1988, G. Gilles, F. Candoussau (#183) (NY, culture: G.J.S. 88-17); Pyrenees Atlantiques, Ile de Sauveterre 64, on bark of Elaeagnus pungens, 7 Feb. 1993, F. Candoussau (#261) (BPI 802565, culture: G.J.S. 93-10). Germany, Mecklenburg, on rotten wood (holotype: Tab. 123 a-d, 124 a-f in Tode 1791), no material preserved. Sweden, Ostergotland, Stenhammar, on decorticated wood, E. Fries (UPS, F-07181, 133487, neotype of H. cupularis), labeled: “Hypocrea cupularis Fr. ? nondum evoluta, Ogotia, Stenh.”

 
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