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Page number:176 
Remarks (internal):Hydnellum caeruleum is very common throughout Florida. This is the only species which has bluish zones in the context tissue. After examining the Florida type, we agree with Maas Geesteranus (1960) that Murrill's (1940) Sarcodon alachuanum is a synonym of H. caeruleum.
Hydnellum ferrugipes is very similar to H. caeruleum. Initially, we believed both species to be contaxic, with the microscopic and macroscopic characters being identical. Contrary to this belief, Harrison (1968) stated that the two were distinct with H. caeruleum bruising blue and containing bluish zones in the context when fresh. Hydnellum ferrugipes forms the zones only after drying and does not bruise blue. We have recently seen fresh material of H. caeruleum and observed the bluish colors as described, but they were not seen in fresh collections of H. ferrugipes. Therefore, the species occurring in Florida can be no other than H. caeruleum. In light of these data, our previous belief was incorrect that the two species are contaxic.
By current ICBN rules, it is uncertain if the epithet Hydnum suaveolens ß H. caeruleum is a species sanctioned by Fries. Because of the uncertainty of its infraspecific rank based upon current ICBN rules, we consider this species sanctioned by Fries as (Hornem.: Fr.). This can only change after the rules have been clarified concerning protected Friesian names in infraspecific ranks.
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:HYDNELLUM CAERULEUM (Hornem.: Fr.) P. Karst.
Hydnum caeruleum Hornem., Fl. Dan. 8 (Fasc. 23): 7, Tab. 1374. 1808. Hydnum suaveolens /3 H. caeruleum Hornem.: Fr., Syst. Mycol. 1: 402. 1821. Hydnum suaveolens var. caeruleum (Hornem.: Fr.) Hornem., Nomencl. Fl. Dan. 65. 1827. Hydnum suaveolens subsp. H. caeruleum (Hornem.: Fr.) Fr., Epicr. Syst. Mycol. 507. 1838. Hydnellum caeruleum (Hornem.: Fr.) P. Karst., Meddeland Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 5: 41. 1879; Wehm., Fungi New Brunsw., Nova Scotia and Pr. Edw. Isl. 68. 1950 (Homonym). Calodon caeruleum (Hornem.: Fr.) P. Karst., Bidr. Kann. Finl. Nat. Folk 37: 106. 1882; Quél., C.r. Ass. Franc. Av. Sci. (La Rochelle, 1882) 11: 399. 1883 (Homonym). Phellodon caeruleus (Hornem.: Fr.) Nav., Natuurwet. Tijdschr. 5: 67. 1923. TYPE: unknown.
Hydnum cyaneotinctum Pk., Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 30: 98. 1903. Hydnellum cyaneotinctum (Pk.) Banker, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 12: 164. 1906. Calodon cyaneotintum (Pk.) Snell, Mycologia 37: 51. 1945-. TYPE: UNITED STATES. MAINE: Orris Island, Aug 1902, Anderson s.n. (SOLOTYPE: NYS!).
Sarcodon alachuanum Murr., Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 67: 275. 1940. Hydnellum alachuanum (Murr.) Coker & Beers, Stip. hydnums eastern U.S. 66.1951. TYPE: UNITED STATES. FLORIDA: Alachua Co., Gainesville, 9 Aug 1932, W. A. Murrill 78335 (HOLOTYPE: FLAS!).
Sporophore single to gregarious or concrescent. Pileus up to 8 cm broad, convex to plane, depressed in weathered specimens, lobed, cottony tomentose becoming matted or glabrous towards disc, often pitted or colliculose, white (4A 1), yellowish white (4A2), pastel yellow (4A4), dark blonde (5D4), light brown (6C6-6C8), bruised areas grayish violet (19C3) to blackish blue (19E4-19F8), margin (20F4); context up to 1 cm thick, not obviously duplex, zonate (20C5), white (4A1) to yellowish white (4A2), portions grayish violet (I 9C3) with pastel blue (20A4) zones; taste slightly disagreeable; odor slightly fragrant. Stipe up to 3 x 1.5 cm, central, terete with a slightly bulbous base, tomentose below to matted or glabrous above, concolorous to grayish orange (6B6) or reddish gold (6C7); context duplex, zonate, spongy subsurface layer, hard at center, concolorous. Spines up to 6 mm long, decurrent, crowded, white (6A1), orange white (5A2), light brown (6D8), tan (6E6) to dark brown (6F8) or violet brown (l 0F8). Chemical reactions: context tissue olive green in KOH or NH4OH.
Pileus trama hyphae up to 7 gm diam, uninflated, interwoven in subsurface layer, subparallel below, clamps rare to locally abundant; gloeoplerous-like hyphae up to 7 µm diam. Stipe hyphae up to 7.5 µm diam, some thick-walled, uninflated, interwoven in subsurface layer to parallel at center, clamps not seen; gloeoplerouslike hyphae up to 9 um diam. Spine trama hyphae up to 6 um diam, uninflated, clamps not seen. Basidia 29-60 (80) x 6.5-9 (11) µm (x = 52.35 ± 10.78 x 8.76 ± 1.16 µm), clavate, clamps not seen, 4-spored; sterigmata 4-6 (7) µm long (x = 6.2 ± 0.86 µm). Basidiospores 5-6-2 x 4.5-5-5 µm (X = 5.69 ± 0.23 X 4-77 ± 0-42 µm), subglobose, brownish; ornamentation tuberculate (Fig. 1D), not prominent, rounded to flattened.
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