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Literature:
 
Page number:25 
Description type:Non-original description 
Description:Echinochaete ruficeps (Berk. & Br.) Ryv. Fig. 5
Norw. J. Bot. 19:231, 1972 - Favolus ruficeps Berk. & Br., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 14:57, 1873.
Basidiocarps annual, pileate, often several basidiocarps from the same point of attachment, 1-5 cm wide, 1-4 cm measured radially and 2-5(7) mm thick, thinning out towards the margin, consistency brittle to hard when dried; pileus varying in shape from dimidiate to flabelliform or spathulate with tapering base or with a distinct stipe, upper surface flat to convex, pale to dark reddish-brown, first minutely tomentose, when old smoother to rough with tomentum only near the stipe, sometimes radially striate, margin deflexed when dry, even or lobed; pore surface pinkish ochraceous to dark-brown, pores angular to hexagonal, 1-2 per mm, but often elongated radially towards the stipe, dissepiments thin, entire to weakly incised, tubes up to 4 mm long, usually paler than the pore surface, but darker than the context which is brittle to fibrous, 0.5-3 mm thick, straw to ochraceous; stipe short, 1 cm long, 2-5 mm wide, with decurrent pore-layer on the lower side, tomentose on the upper side. Hyphal system dimitic; generative hyphae hyaline, thin-walled and clamped, 2.5-4 µm wide; skeleto-binding hyphae golden, thick-walled to solid, 2.5-6 µm in diameter, sometimes looking like skeletal hyphae, but always branched at the top if not broken, context hyphae dextrinoid especially when lying in clusters, hyaline to pale-yellow, relatively thin-walled, 2-11 µm wide; the tomentum consists of yellowish, weakly thick-walled generative hyphae with large clamps and skeleto-binding hyphae with secondary simple septa, up to 10 µm wide. Setoid elements present in the hymenium, thick-walled and dark brown, up to 35-52 µm, ornamented with sharp spines up to 9 mm long, on the edge of the dissepiments the setoid elements are more hyphoid, on the pileus abundant and up to 90 µm long, brown, thick-walled and with occasional sharp, lateral spines near the apex, some of them are without spines and some show secondary septation towards the apex. Basidiospores subcylindrical to ellipsoid, smooth, hyaline and thin-walled, 8.5-12(13.5) x 3.2-4 µm, non-amyloid.
Cultural characteristics- Unknown.
Substrata- On dead wood.
Distribution- Tropical Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Uganda), Sri Lanka, and Japan.
Remarks. Macroscopically the species is close to Echinochaete brachyporus, but the former is often smaller and with a darker pilear surface due to the abundant dark setoid elements in the pilear tomentum and cuticle.
 
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