Search on : Taxa descriptions

 


 
 Add this item to the list  823583 Original description
   
Remarks (public):The combination of characters like dry, medium sized, greyish to brownish, velvety pileus; water like latex which turns light yellow when exposed to air; basidiospores of high amyloid ornamentation of zebroid pattern; distinctly amyloid plage and trichoderm type pileipellis confirmed that the taxa belongs in the Lactarius subgen. Plinthogali (Le et al. 2007, Heilmann-Clausen et al. 1998). Morph-anatomically Lactarius benghalensis is often confused with some taxa, viz. L. montoyae K. Das & J.R. Sharma reported from Uttaranchal (India) growing in the Quercus and Rhodhodendron dominating forest, which differs by characters like white coloured latex, very highly (up to 2.7 µm) ornamented basidiospores, absence of chelo- and pseudomacrocystidia and presence of a trichopalisade type pileipellis (Das & Sharma 2004); L. fumosus var. occidentalis A.H. Sm. & Hesler (currently known as Lactarius fuliginosus (Fr.) Fr.) first time reported from Northern California association with oke-pine wood, have a larger (pileus 40–100 mm in diam.) fruit body, pale cream coloured lamellae with adnate attachment and white latex (Smith & Hesler 1962); on the other hand, L. subplinthogalus Coker reported from mixed conifer and hardwood forest, differs from the newly reported species by the characters of a larger (30–150 mm) olive-brown to buffy brown pileus and milky white latex, basidiospore ornamentation made up of long (upto 3 µm) prominent spines and presence of caulocystidia (Smith & Hesler 1962); Lactarius shoreae Stubbe & Verbeken reported from Sri Lanka, under the Shorea sp. forest, differsfrom Lactarius benghalensis in characters like a smaller, (15 mm in diam.) irregularly shaped fruit body, absence of stipe, white latex and very highly ornamented basidiospores (upto 3.5 µm) (Verbeken et al. 2014); L. sulcatus Verbeken & Walleyn have a yellowish brown to brown colored pileus, adnate lamellae with abundant lamellulae, sub-reticulate basidiospores ornamentation, pleuromacrocystidia absent and a palisade type of pileipellis (Verbeken 2000). Some of the Indian taxa belonging in the same subgenus viz. Lactarius picinus Fr., L. lignyotus Fr., Lactarius vesterholtii K. Das & D. Chakr., Lactarius fuliginosus (Krapf) Fr. have a milky coffee coloured pileus, lamellae turn rusty red when brushing, white coloured latex which turned red that can easily separate from the newly reported species (Fries 1838); Lactarius picinus growing in the reach Picea forest, differs from the newly reported taxa having fuscous to brownish olive or sepia coloured larger sized pileus (40–90 mm), absence of pleurocystidia and trichoepithelium type of pileipellis (Heilmann-Clausen et al. 1998); Lactarius vesterholtii K. Das & D. Chakr. differs by having a larger (58–75 mm diam.), light brown to greyish brown or sometimes pale yellow to greyish yellow coloured pileus, 7–8 series of lamellulae, stipe turned light orange when bruised and trichopalisade to lamprotrichopalisade type of pileipellis (Das & Chakraborty 2014); L. lignyotus Fr. having a larger pileus (35–70 mm in diam.) with a central papilla, dark grayish brown to brownish black, longer stipe (50–100 mm long) and trichopallisade type of pileipellis (Das & Sharma 2005). In our ITS based phylogenetic tree, the newly reported taxa Lactarius benghalensis cluster with L. miniatescens Verbeken & Van Rooij, reported from West Africa under Uapaca somon, Lonchocarpus sericeus and Pterocarpus erinaceus dominated riverine forest, differs by the presence of a longer stipe (40–45 mm long), white latex, subpellis composed of short cylindrical to subglobose cells and terminal cells of stipitipellis frequently with slightly thickened walls (Van Rooij et al. 2003). 
Description type:Original description 
Description:Basidiocarps small to medium size. Pileus 22–34 mm in diam., broadly convex to plano-convex or applanate with a slightly central depression or minutely infundibuliform at maturity, brownish grey (6C2) to brownish orange (7C2) or greyish brown (7D3; 9D3) at centre, fading toward margin pale grey (1B1) to yellowish grey (4B2) toward margin, surface smooth to slightly velvety, dry to semi-moist, no colour change when brushing, turn light yellow with KOH, reddish with SV, negative with FeSO4, NH4OH and guaiacol; margin regular, slightly uplifted when mature; context 1 mm thick toward centre and less than 1 mm toward margined. Lamellae adnate to adnexed, up to 2 mm broad, yellowish grey (4B2), orange white (5A2), orange grey (5B2), orange white (6A2), turned reddish to pink with phenol and reddish with SV, regular; edge even, concolorus; lamellulae 2–3 series of the lengths. Stipe excentric to semi-centric at maturity, 5–8 × 4–5 mm, white (1A1) to grey (4B1; 6B1), no colour change when brushing, turn light yellow with KOH, reddish with SV and phenol, negative with guaiacol and FeSO4, more or less equal, dry to semi-moist to dry; surface smooth; context solid, white, no change when expose with air. Latex watery, turn very light yellowish or unchanged when expose with air (after 30 min.) Teats mild. Odour mild. Spores print cream to light yellow. Basidiospores (6.2–)7.1–7.6–8.1(–9.0) × (6.2)6.4–7–7.5(–8.2) µm, Q=1.05–1.09–1.14, sub-globose to sub-ellipsoid, ornamentation amyloid, composed of high (1.1–1.5 µm) to short (0.6–0.8 µm) wings like, interconnected with each other, sometime free, showing zabroid like in side view, intermediate space of wings warts like structure present, 0.2–0.8 µm high, mostly free, sometime interconnected 2 or 3 with fine line. Basidium (44.0–)46.5–52.7–57.2(–60) × 10.7–11.9–13.5 µm, clavate to sub-clavate, hyaline, thin walled, oil granule present when viewed with KOH, 4-spored; sterigmata 3.6–5.4 × 0.8–1.3 µm, cylindrical. Lamellae trama composed of sphearocyst, inflatnd hyphe and moderately to abundant latex hyphae. Lamellae edge sterile. Chealocystidia 26–39.5 × 4.5–7.5 µm, abundant, sub-cylindrical to cylindrical with moniliform, appindiculate to pointed apex, hyaline, thin walled. Pleuromacrocystidia same as chealocystidia. Pleuropseudocystidia 3.0–4.7 µm in broad, moderate to less abundant, cylindrical with obtuse apex, sometime lobed near apex or lower then apex, thin walled, dense with cytoplasmic contains. Pileipellis a trichoderm; suprapelis 46.5–61.0 µm deep, covered by a gelatinized layer and composed by interwoven hyphae, 6.0–9.0 µm in diam., hyaline, thin walled, branched, hyphal end erect to sub-erect with obtuse apex; subpellis 89.0–125.0 µm deep, less gelatinized, composed of loosely and parallel arranged hyphae, 4.5–7.5 µm in diam., hyaline, thin walled, branched, lactiflus hyphae moderately present; cortex intermixed with sphearocyast, irregularly hyphae and lactiflus hyphae. Stipitipellis a trichoderm, 107.0–150.0 µm deep, composed of irregularly arranged hyphae, 5.5–8.0 µm in breath, hyaline, thin walled, branched, septet, less gelatinized. Clamp connection absent in all parts. 
Taxon name: