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 Add this item to the list   Pycnoporus sanguineus (L. ex Fr.) Murr.
Page number:1011 
Description type:Culture description 
Description:Pycnoporus sanguineus (L. ex Fr.) Murr.
Cultural characters: (Figs. 13 to 15, 78 to 87).
GROWTH CHARACTERS.-The rate of growth is moderately rapid, the plates usually being covered in 3 weeks, rarely requiring 4 weeks. The advancing zone is even, slightly raised, downy. The mats are white at first, slightly raised, downy to fine woolly-floccose, thin and translucent, soon patchy, with some appressed opaque white areas, usually beginning as complete or partial zones surrounding the inoculum and extending as radiating fingers or narrow sectors, appearing pellicular but actually soft and fragile. In most cultures color begins to appear after 1 to 2 weeks, as granules or small flecks of "vivid reddish orange" ("flame scarlet"), "moderate reddish orange" (10.OR5/10, 6/8, 6/10), "strong orange" ("salmon orange") and "moderate orange" (2.5YR7/10) over the inoculum or opaque white areas or as small areas in the woolly-floccose mycelium of "strong yellowish pink" (10.OR7/8), "moderate yellowish pink" (2.5YR5/4), "moderate reddish orange" (10.OR5/8; 7.5R6/10; "bittersweet orange"), and "moderate orange" (2.5YR6/10; "bittersweet pink"). At 3 weeks the mats are exceedingly variable: some have extensive partial or complete zones or sectors of opaque white mycelium bearing fruiting areas composed of granules or pores of "vivid reddish orange", "moderate reddish orange", "strong orange", and "moderate orange" as described above, and "strong reddish orange" (7.5R5/12; "scarlet"), and "vivid orange" ("rufous"), the intervening areas mainly appressed, subfelty or woolly-floccose, thin and translucent; other mats have small to large zones, partial zones or sectors of more or less raised, woolly, woolly-floccose, or woolly-cottony mycelium, "moderate pink" ("flesh color"), "strong yellowish pink" (10.OR7/8, 8/8), "moderate yellowish pink" (2.5YR7/6; 10.OR8/4; "salmon color"), "vivid reddish orange" ("flame scarlet"), "moderate reddish orange" (10.OR6/7, 6/10; "bittersweet orange", "rufous"), "strong orange" (2.5YR6/12; "salmon orange"), and "moderate orange" (2.5YR6/10, 7/8, 7/10; "light salmon orange"), the intervening areas mainly appressed, downy to woolly-floccose, thin and translucent, occasionally opaque white, pellicular, with or without deeply colored granules. At 4 weeks individual mats show intensification of color or increase in extent of colored areas or fruiting areas, or in thickness of raised mycelium, with the formation of balls or lumps in some colonies but the color range and topography remains essentially the same as at 3 weeks. At 5 and 6 weeks the colonies are still variable, most of them showing large sectors or zones where the mycelium is more or less raised, woolly-floccose, woolly-cottony, or woolly-felty, and brightly colored in the same range of colors listed above, with intervening areas appressed, colorless or translucent white, subfelty or woolly-floccose, such colonies rarely fruiting; other colonies with more or less extensive fruiting areas, usually opaque white and pellicular, bearing granules and pores as described above, with the color limited to the fruiting surfaces or, occasionally, in small areas of aerial mycelium such as that making up the surface of the other type of culture.
The "reverse" is unchanged or with pale pink or yellowish tinge in the agar below fruiting areas.
The tests for extracellular oxidase are positive: on gallic and tannic acid agars, diffusion zones are moderately strong to strong, with no growth or a trace on gallic acid agar, diameter 2.2-3.3 cm on tannic acid agar; with guaiacum, reaction strong.
HYPHAL CHARACTERS. Advancing zone: hyphae hyaline, thin-walled, nodose-septate, freuently branched at and between septa, 2.1-4.2 µm diameter (Fig. 78). Aerial mycelium: .a) hyphae as in advancing zone, branched and anastomosed, frequently up to 5.2-5.9 µm
diameter in older parts of mat, and with slight swellings and constrictions (Fig. 79); (b) narrow fiber hyphae, 1.4-3.1 µm diameter, appearing in most cultures a short distance from margin and becoming very numerous, arising as the terminal cell of a nodose-septate hypha, bearing numerous branches along a short length, the branches remaining short so that individual hyphal complexer of the bovista type are recognizable; or the branches becoming long, usually remaining unbranched, flexuous, curving and interwoven, the walls soon refractive, very thick in basal portion, only slightly thickened in the branches of many hyphae of the raised areas, very thick to solid in other hyphae, frequently bearing orange granules which are persistent in lactic acid but disappear rapidly in KOH (Figs. 82, 83); (c) staghorn branched hyphae numerous in older parts of mat, arising as terminal cells of nodose-septate hyphae, narrow with numerous prong-like branches, about 1-2 u diameter, firmly interwoven (Fig. 84); (d) oidia very numerous, making up most of appressed opaque areas but occurring in all parts of the mat in association with other types of hyphae, formed by fragmentation of nodose-septate hyphae in which the clamp connections are close together and soon disintegrate to release the oidia, 3.5-6.3 x 1.4-2.8 µm (Fig. 80) ; (e) chlamydospores numerous in most isolates, intercalary and terminal, thin-walled, the contents staining in phloxine, often granular, 6.3-11.9 x 4.9-8.4 µm (Fig. 81). Fruiting areas: (a) nodose-septate hyphae and (b) narrow fiber hyphae as described above; (c) basidia 5.2-5.9 µm diameter, bearing four spores (Figs. 85, 86); (d) basidiospores hyaline, even, non-amyloid, ovoid, 3.6-5.2 x 2.0-2.6 µm (Fig. 87).
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