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 Add this item to the list  833381 Original description
   
Remarks (public):Ecology and Distribution: At present known only from the type specimen which was collected in upper transition zone forest, on bark of Psidium galapageium. Notes: When clarifying the concept of Vainionora Kalb & Elix (2004) emphasized that species of the genus had a well-developed, pigmented subhymenium, but a colorless hypothecium. In their revision of species of Lecanora with dark pigmented hypothecium Lumbsch et al. (1996) did not distinguish two alternatively pigmented layers (subhymenium and hypothecium) immediately below the hymenium. They considered species with a pigmented hypothecium and bacilliform conidia to belong to Lecanora s.str. (coronulans-group), but species with filiform conidia were placed in Vainionora (Lumbsch et al. 1996, p. 286, table 2). Vainionora nugrae has a distinctly orange-brown layer of hyphae present below the hymenium, but the hyphae immediately below the hymenium are actually colorless. This layer is structurally different from the layer of asci and paraphyses immediately above, it is clearly not pigmented as the layer immediately below (Fig18D). Following a terminology discussed in detail by Bungartz (2002), this thin, unpigmented layer of ascogeneous hyphae immediately below the hymenium corresponds to the subhymenium, whereas the pigmented layer further below should be called the hypothecium. Laterally these pigmented hyphae extend into the proper exciple, whereas the unpigmented hyphae still further below are structurally part of the thalline exciple. Unfortunately conidia could not be found in V. nugrae, but as the thallus contains both xanthones and atranorin, it is accomodated here in Vainionora. 
Description type:Original description 
Description:Thallus corticolous, moderately thickened, verrucose-areolate to bullate-areolate; surface faint yellowish green, smooth, matt, epruinose, lacking soredia; prothallus absent or present as a faint whitish layer extending between the granular areoles, rarely deliminting the thallus outline as a black line. Apothecia numerous, often densely aggregated, circular, 0.4–0.8(-1.1) mm in diam., adnate to sessile, often crowded, distinctly lecanorine, margin smooth to coarsely crenulate, epruinose, concolorous with the thallus, disc plane to slightly convex, deep olivaceous to ±blackened, with a faint, farinose, yellowish green pruina; hymenium hyaline, not inspersed, epihymenium with fine, granular crystals, olive brown, infused by a mixture of fuscous brown (elachista-brown: dissolving in K, HCl± dull greenish, N−) and aeruginose pigments (cinereorufa-green: intensifying in K, HCl+ bluish green, N+ reddish violet), crystals and pigments soluble in K; proper exciple thin, indistinct, lacking crystals; thalline exciple thick, corticate, with large crystals only, insoluble in K; subhymenium hyaline, hypothecium deep red-brown (leptocline-brown: K+ orange brown, HCl+ intensely reddish brown, N−); ascospores 8/ascus, simple, ellipsoid, (7.8–)10.3–13.9(–16.7) × (4.9–)5.1–7.4(–9.8) µm (n = 25). Pycnidia not seen. Chemistry: Thallus cortex P± yellowish, K+ yellow, KC+ orange, C+ orange, UV+ pale orange; with atranorin [minor], thiophanic acid [major] and arthothelin [minor]. 
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