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 Add this item to the list  Panaeolus speciosus var. pilocystidiosus

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 Summary:Panaeolus speciosus var. pilocystidiosus Amandeep Kaur, NS Atri and Munruchi Kaur, Mycosphere 4 (3): 622 (2013) [MB#803838] 
 MycoBank #:803838 
 Authors:Amandeep Kaur, NS Atri and Munruchi Kaur 
 Authors (abbreviated):Amandeep Kaur, NS Atri and Munruchi Kaur 
 Page #:622 
 Year of effective publication:2013 
 Remarks:Carpophores 3.5-8.1 cm in height; Pileus 2-2.5 cm broad, 1.5-1.8 cm high, conical to convex; surface yellowish (2A8) with orange (6A8) scales, hygrophanous, fading to pale yellow on drying; margin regular, not splitting at maturity, non-striate; flesh thin, pale, unchanging; cuticle fully peeling; taste mild; odor farinaceous. Lamellae adnate, unequal, 3-sized, subdistant, ventricose, moderately broad, up to 0.4 cm broad, fragile, grayish black; gill edges smooth, white. Spore print grayish black. Stipe 3.3-7.8 cm long, 0.2-0.25 cm broad, cylindrical, equal in diameter throughout, solid when young, hollow at maturity, surface yellowish white, changing to grayish brown when bruised, pruinose; annulus absent. Basidiospores 12.8-15.5 x 8.5-10 mm (Q =1.52), lenticular, limoniform in face view, ellipsoidal in side view, with a broad central germ pore, thick-walled, smooth, chocolate brown, not bleaching in concentrated H2SO4. Basidia 14-24 x 8.4-11.4 mm, clavate, 2-, 4-spored, mostly 4-spored, thin walled, hyaline; sterigmata 2.8-4.3 mm long. Gill edges sterile. Cheilocystidia 15.6-28.3 x 4.3-12.6 mm, crowded, pedicellate clavate with round apex, thin-walled, hyaline. Pleurocystidia absent. Pileus cuticle cellular with scattered pileocystidia; cellular elements 14-25.5 x 11.5-18.5 mm, sphaeropedunculate to pedicellate clavate, thin-walled, hyaline; pileocystidia 25.5-45.5 x 4.4-18.4 mm, polymorphic, elongated fibrillose, wavy, cylindrical, lageniform, ventricose-fusoid, thin-walled, with granular tips; pileus context homoiomerous, made up of parallel, septate 2.8-7 mm broad hyphae. Hymenophoral trama regular, composed of thin-walled, hyaline 2.8-8.5 mm broad hyphae. Subhymenium pseudoparenchymatous. Stipe cuticle hyphal with abundant caulocystidia all over the surface; context made up of longitudinally running, cylindrical, thin-walled 3-14 mm broad hyphae; caulocystidia 15.5-42.5 x 2-6 mm, polymorphic, wavy, fibrillose, cylindrical to lageniform, thin-walled, granular, sometimes with long neck and subcapitate densely granular tips. Clamp connections absent throughout. Material examined: India, Punjab; Barnala (228m): Rarh, growing scattered on cattle dung, June 26, 2008, Amandeep Kaur, PUN 4081. The diagnostic characters of the above examined collection are in agreement to those given for P. speciosus growing on horse dung from Scotland by Watling and Gregory (1987). But the basidiospores of Scotland collection range from 14-20 x 10-12 x 8-10 mm in size as compared to 12.8-15.5 x 8.5-10 mm sized spores in the above examined Indian collection. In the Scotland collection, the clamp connections are reported to be present while pileocystidia are reported to be absent (Watling and Gregory 1987). In the presently examined collection, clamp connections are altogether absent while pileocystidia are present on the pileus cuticle. In view of these sharp differences, P. speciosus var. pilocystidiosus has been proposed as a new variety. The species has been collected for the first time from India. 
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