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 Add this item to the list   Panaeolus africanus var. diversistipus

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 Summary:Panaeolus africanus var. diversistipus Amandeep Kaur, NS Atri and Munruchi Kaur, Mycosphere 4 (3): 620 (2013) [MB#803831] 
 MycoBank #:803831 
 Authors:Amandeep Kaur, NS Atri and Munruchi Kaur
 Authors (abbreviated):Amandeep Kaur, NS Atri and Munruchi Kaur
 Page #:620
 Year of effective publication:2013
 Remarks:Carpophore 5.4 cm in height. Pileus 1.8 cm broad, 1.3 cm high, convex; surface dry, yellowish white (2A2) with grayish shades, rugulose; margin regular, not splitting at maturity, non-striate, appendiculate, with brownish gray (6D2) marginal band; cuticle not peeling; flesh thin, bluing when handled, non-deliquescent; taste and odor not distinctive. Lamellae adnexed, unequal, 3-sized, subdistant, moderately broad, up to 0.4 cm, fragile, grayish-black; gill edges serrate, white. Spore print black. Stipe central, 5.2 cm long, 0.2 cm broad, tubular, equal in diameter throughout, hollow, surface white (2A1) at the apex, grayish brown (6F3) at the central part, light brown (6D4) at the base, with white scales throughout the surface, white cottony basal mycelium present, exannulate. Basidiospores 12-14.5 x 8.5-10.2 mm (Q =1.41), limoniform in face view, ellipsoidal in side view, with a broad truncate germ pore, thick-walled, smooth, blackish brown, not bleaching in concentrated H2SO4. Basidia 18.7-23.8 x 9.3-12 mm, clavate, 4-spored, thin-walled, weakly granular; sterigmata 3.4-4.3 mm long. Gill edges sterile. Cheilocystidia 22-34 x 6.8-12 mm, abundant, lageniform or ventricose fusoid, thin-walled, granular, some with densely granular tips. Pleurocystidia chrysocystidioid, 44-63 x 15.3-20.3 mm, metulloidal, ventricose fusoid, thick walled, granular, with golden contents, some with apical encrustations. Pileus cuticle cellular with scattered pileocystidia, cellular elements globose to subglobose, thin-walled, hyaline, 3.4-15.3 mm broad; pileocystidia 23.8-35.7 x 6.8-10 mm, few, scattered, cylindrical or clavate, thin-walled, granular; context made up of interwoven, thin walled 3.4-15.3 mm broad hyphae. Hymenophoral trama regular, composed of thin-walled 6.8-12 mm broad hyphae. Stipe cuticle hyphal, with caulocystidia scattered in groups, context hyphae longitudinally parallel, loosely arranged, thin-walled, hyaline 8.5-22 mm broad, caulocystidia 25.5-34 x 8.5-12.7 mm, cylindrical to clavate, thin-walled, granular, some with densely granular tips. Clamp connections absent throughout. Material examined: India, Punjab, Hoshiarpur (295 m): Jejon Duaba, growing solitary on mixed cattle dung heap, July 05, 2011, Amandeep Kaur, PUN 4342 The macroscopic and microscopic details of the above examined collection are similar to those given for P. africanus by Stamets (1996) except for the stipe characteristics. Stamets (1996) has described the stipe surface of P. africanus as whitish having pinkish shades with pruinose apex. However, in the presently examined collection the stipe surface is white towards the apex, without any pinkish tone, grayish brown in the middle and light brown towards the base, and is covered with white scales throughout and white cottony mycelium is present at the base. To accommodate this differently colored stipe variant of P. africanus, a new variety, namely P. africanus var. diversistipus var. nov. has been proposed. Stamets (1996) reported the species as coprophilous in habitat growing on hippopotamus and elephant dung from Central and South Africa in the spring and rainy seasons. Earlier this species was collected growing in groups on elephant dung in the month of December from South India (Natarajan and Raaman, 1983, 1984). Presently, the collection has been made from mixed dung heap from North India. 
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